• Dangers Of Pregnant Women and Fetal Impact of Anemia


    Anemia in pregnant women can not be taken lightly. Due to risk all for pregnant mothers. Among others, miscarriage, long labor, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, there is even the possibility of babies born with congenital defects.

    The gestation period is a period where the body is in dire need of maximum food intake for both body and spirit (always relaxed and not stress). In this period also, pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to the body's decreased ability to work optimally.

    Pregnant women often complain usually, frequent fatigue, headaches, shortness of breath, pale face and various other complaints. All complaints are an indication that the woman is suffering from anemia during pregnancy. The disease occurs due to low hemoglobin content in the body during pregnancy. This anemia can simply be interpreted by the lack of red blood cells in the blood than usual.

    Anemia in pregnancy is a condition in women with hemoglobin levels below 11 g%, especially in the first trimester and third trimester. Hb levels are normal for the final trimester pregnant women of at least 10.5 g / dL. If not, is called anemia. In the non-pregnant women, normal levels of Hb was 12-16 g / dL

    Vulnerable Pregnant Women Anemia.

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common thing. World Health Organization (WHO) reported that 35-75% of women in developing countries and 18% of women in developed countries are anemic during pregnancy.

    Anemia in pregnancy can be divided into two general categories:

    1. Anemia due to normal changes that occur in pregnancy

    2. Anemia due to things that are not normal.

    Why anemia may occur in the absence of abnormalities during pregnancy? Because during pregnancy, maternal plasma number rises to 50% (about 1000 cc). Blood cell counts also increased, but only 25% and only emerged in late pregnancy. This has led to declining levels of hemoglobin.

    The most frequent cause of anemia in pregnancy in addition to the physiological anemia that has been described above is iron deficiency anemia. Deficiencies of these nutrients is the cause of 75% of cases of anemia in pregnancy. The number of events in the first trimester only 3-9%, and increased 16-55% in the third trimester. This type of anemia usually occurs in women who have nausea and excessive vomiting or has a chronic illness.

    Total body iron stores in non-pregnant women was 2.2 g and 3.2 g amount of this increase in pregnant women. Approximately 500-600 mg of which is used to make red blood cells, and 300 mg of which are used by the fetus.

    In pregnant women with adequate iron stores, the daily iron requirement is 27 mg per day. In contrast to mothers who are not pregnant, that only require 18 mg per day. High need by the body is trying to achieve by increasing the capacity of iron absorption in the intestine. During pregnancy, the intestines can absorb 40% more iron. However, research shows that pregnant women need iron is very difficult to pursue through the intake of food alone, especially after entering the second half of pregnancy. Even healthy women who were often not have sufficient iron stores to support the needs during pregnancy.

    Anemia due to iron deficiency anemia should be distinguished by physiological changes. The trick is to check the levels of ferritin iron deposits and iron levels in the blood serum iron. Serum iron and ferritin levels are low clearly illustrates the state of iron deficiency. But sometimes, not until the iron deficiency causes reduced body iron stores that are visible in the examination of the serum iron levels are down. If the patient is taking iron supplementation was several days before the examination, serum iron levels may appear normal. Therefore, discuss the results with your doctor to get the correct interpretation.

    To prevent iron deficiency states during pregnancy, WHO recommends iron supplementation of 60 mg / day starting as soon as possible after pregnancy is known and given throughout the pregnancy. So, start to increase your iron intake and include supplementation to prevent iron deficiency.

    CAUSES OF ANEMIA

    Anemia in pregnancy due to:

    • Increased need for iron for fetal growth.

    • lack of iron intake on the food consumed by pregnant women

    • maternal diet disrupted by nausea during pregnancy

    • The tendency of low reserves of iron (Fe) in women due to previous childbirth and menstruation.

    ANEMIA SYMPTOMS

    The common symptoms arise are palpitations, pallor, faster breathing, fatigue, and headaches, weakness, fatigue, dizziness, loss of appetite, decreased physical fitness and impaired wound healing.

    IMPACT OF ANEMIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Effects of maternal and fetal anemia varies from mild to severe. When hemoglobin levels lower than 6 g / dL, significant complications can arise in the mother and fetus. Hemoglobin levels as low as it can not meet the needs of the fetus of oxygen and can cause heart failure in the mother. Some studies also found an association between maternal anemia in the first and second trimester with preterm birth (less than 37 weeks).

    Besides anemia in pregnant women also causes inhibition of cell growth in both fetal body and brain cells, abortion, duration of parturition due to lack of thrust of the uterus, bleeding post - partum, vulnerable to infection, Cordis prone to decompensation in patients with Hb less than 4 g - percent.

    Hypoxia due to anemia may lead to shock and even maternal death during childbirth, although not accompanied by bleeding, death of the baby, infant mortality at a very young age and congenital malformations, and anemia in babies born.

    HANDLING

    In addition to handling drug therapy can be done with diet therapy. To meet the iron intake, increase your intake of foods high in iron (Fe) such animal foods, beans, and dark green vegetables. Iron deficiency is not the only cause of anemia, but if the high prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency is usually regarded as the most dominant cause. Consideration is made ​​of iron folate tablet supplementation is considered as one of the ways that are beneficial in overcoming the problem of anemia.

    Anemia can be treated by taking iron tablets or Tablet Add Blood (TTD). Commonly given to pregnant women as much as one tablet every day for 90 consecutive days during pregnancy. TTD ferrosulfat containing 200 mg, equivalent to 60 milligrams of elemental iron and 0.25 mg of folic acid. In some people, the provision of these iron preparations have side effects such as nausea, stomach pain, vomiting, sometimes diarrhea and difficult defecation. To avoid side effects tablet is recommended to drink after a meal in the evening.

    FIGURES ADEQUACY OF IRON (Fe)

    Infant: 3-5mg

    Toddlers: 8-9mg

    Anaksekolah: 10mg

    Adolescent boys: 14-17mg

    Adolescent girls: 14-25mg

    Adult male: 13mg

    Adult female: 14-26mg

    Pregnant women: +20 mg

    Breastfeeding mothers: +2 mg


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